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TC2M antenne


#1  28/06-17 09:37
Finni (OZ5ZI)

Indlæg: 1732
Hej.

Jeg er blevet interesseret i denne antenne TC2M.

http://www.tc2m.info/TC2M%20HF%20Vertical%20G8J NJ.pdf

Er der nogen der har lavet den, som vil dele nogle erfaringer.

mvh

#2  28/06-17 17:48
Glenn Møller-Holst
Indlæg: 56
Svar til #1:

En dag når jeg får tid...

Også 40-1200MHz 50 cm høj, 5 cm bred.
eller 20-600MHz 100 cm høj, 10 cm bred.

Det smarte ved antennen er at den (stort set) ikke kan bringes ud af resonans og dermed ikke skal justeres - heller ikke ved antenneflytning.

To T2CM arme kan anvendes som en bredbåndsdipol:

Denne Travelling Wave Antenna bredbåndsantenne (T2FD) "halveret" og parret/krydset med en ruse-antenne, giver stort set en T2CM antenne:

T2FD -- The Forgotten [wideband] Antenna:
http://www.hard-core-dx.com/nordicdx/antenna/wi re/t2fd.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T2FD_antenna

Jeg lavede straks et backup link, da jeg opdagede linken:
http://web.archive.org/web/20150529061427/www.t c2m.info/TC2M%20HF%20Vertical%20G8JNJ.pd f

-

info om "non-resonante":
http://www.tapr.org/~n5eg/index_files/Broadband %20HF%20Antennas.pdf
Citat: “...
Misconception: An antenna (dipole or loop) must be resonant to work well.
– Antenna does not need be resonant to work well
…"

Andre interessante antenner:


Wide-band antenna inspiration:

Very simple wideband flat rectangular antenna (the “big" one could be made of metal mesh - e.g. mesh size 1/10 lambda of highest frequency) Two is sufficient to make polarisation diversity:
This antenna could be scaled to cover 87MHz-333MHz (86x86cm):
This antenna could be scaled to cover 470MHz-1.8GHz (16x16cm):
Small Printed Ultrawideband Antenna With Reduced Ground Plane Effect:
http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Zhi_Ning_Ch en/publication/3018995_Small_Printed_Ult rawideband_Antenna_With_Reduced_Ground_P lane_Effect/links/0912f514407041ce220000 00.pdf
Quote: "...
[See also figur 2. Can be fine-meshed so it can be attached e.g. to a non-infrared-reflective window-glass.]
The measured bandwidth for -10dB return loss covers the range of 2.95–11.6 GHz and has good agreement with simulations. The return loss response across the bandwidth features a multiple resonance operation.
...
The measured radiation efficiency varies from 79% at 3.1 GHz to 95% at 4 GHz across the bandwidth of 3.1–10.6 GHz as shown in Fig. 7.
..."


See the single unbalanced wideband monopole used (actually a tilted “half” bow-tie antenna with ground-plane):
Scaled: 1,25x1,25m 50MHz-800MHz
Scaled: 83x83cm 145MHz-2,3GHz
A new compact wideband MIMO antenna – the double-sided tapered self-grounded monopole array:
http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/ful ltext/199329/local_199329.pdf
Quote"...
0.4–15 GHz
...
the optimal port impedance of the antenna is 135 Ohms, an impedance transformer from 135 Ohms to 50 Ohms is needed.

wideband microstrip line transformer are shown in Fig. 3
..."

Wideband ball antenna:
87-870MHz 33cm diameter over groundplane; wideband 1:10.7 (use fig.2 skabelondesign EDMI1, a=26 og b=monopol height=24 mm):
Wideband planar plate monopole antenna:
http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/10728/InTech-Wid eband_planar_plate_monopole_antenna.pdf
"...
It was first described by (Dubost & Zisler, 1976), who observed the wide impedance characteristics of this antenna. The antenna is capable of covering the 2-18GHz band with good radiating properties.
..."

Flat surface antenna:
A NOVEL LOW-PROFILE WIDEBAND UHF ANTENNA:
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier121/05.11081302.p df

TASH:
The “Chicken Wire Wonder” — A Unique Broadband Vertical Antenna for the HF Bands
I’ll bet you’ve never seen a Tapered Area Small Helix (TASH) antenna!
http://www.arrl.org/files/file/QEX_Next_Issue/J ul-Aug_2009/QEX_Jul-Aug_09_Feature.pdf
Quote: "...
The TASH antenna performs similarly to a quarter wave vertical at most frequencies.
...
Even after much effort the antenna simulation program did not give the desired result.
..."

Kig også på:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shortwave_broadban d_antenna

-

Ingen opskrift - suk:

May 10, 2006, 100-to-1 Bandwidth: New Planar Design Allows Fabrication of Ultra Wideband Phased Array Antennas:
http://phys.org/news/2006-05-to-bandwidth-plana r-fabrication-ultra.html
Citat: "...
The 33-to-1 antennas are flat and include three layers of metal foil fabricated in computer-designed patterns using printed circuit board technology. A prototype that works down to 300 MHz is 16 inches square and about three inches thick – providing a substantial size, weight and volume savings over conventional “egg crate” antennas.
..."
http://www.gtri.gatech.edu/history/files/media/ Ultra_wideband_antenna.jpg

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Glenn, OZ1HFT

Redigeret 28/06-17 18:33
#3  28/06-17 18:17
Glenn Møller-Holst
Indlæg: 56
Svar til #1:

Jeg vil anbefale dig også at lave en transformator ved dummyloaden, så den kan være en 50 ohm dummyload.

----------
Glenn, OZ1HFT

#4  28/06-17 22:26
Finni (OZ5ZI)

Indlæg: 1732
Svar til #3:

Hej.

Tak for jeres svar

Måske det er en dummy load.
Det er egentlig det jeg prøver at opklare :)

mvh



#5  29/06-17 09:23
Glenn Møller-Holst
Indlæg: 56
Svar til #4:

Kig på side 10 figur 16. Her kan du se at antennen (TC2M) max kan en virkningsgrad (sidste procent) på:
* -3dB dvs halvdelen af effekten varmer dummyload ved 2MHz dvs 50%
* ca. -6dB (25%) ved 5MHz dvs 75%
* ca. -10dB (10%) ved 7MHz dvs 90%
* ca. -10dB (10%) ved 21MHz dvs 90%
* ca. -6dB (25%) ved 30MHz dvs 75%
* ca. -15dB (5%) ved 50MHz dvs 95%

Alt i alt er det en meget god antenne med 10 meters højde, hvis man kan stole på hans målinger.

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Glenn, OZ1HFT

Redigeret 29/06-17 09:24
#6  29/06-17 17:34
OZ1BPZ Claus Christiansen
Indlæg: 1405
Svar til #5:
Det må da være omvendt...-10 dB er da kun 10 % virkningsgrad..

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OZ1BPZ / 5P1CC

Livet er for kort til KW manikere......

#7  29/06-17 20:01
Finni (OZ5ZI)

Indlæg: 1732
Svar til #5: Hej.

Een ting er at man brænder lidt energi af når man sender.
Men modtage egenskaberne er jo også interessante.

mvh

#8  29/06-17 20:56
OZ1BPZ Claus Christiansen
Indlæg: 1405
Svar til #7:
Jeg har lavet noget lignende med termineret wire.. Det var ikke noget særligt..

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OZ1BPZ / 5P1CC

Livet er for kort til KW manikere......

#9  30/06-17 07:25
Glenn Møller-Holst
Indlæg: 56
Svar til #6:

Figur 16 er effekten målt ved dummyloaden:

Citat: "FIGURE 16: Power measured in terminating load relative to
applied input power."

Jeg trækker derfor dummyload-effekten fra den tilførte effekt.

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Glenn, OZ1HFT

Redigeret 30/06-17 07:27
#10  30/06-17 07:35
OZ1BPZ Claus Christiansen
Indlæg: 1405
Svar til #9:
Ja så er det ganske korrekt..:-)

----------
OZ1BPZ / 5P1CC

Livet er for kort til KW manikere......

#11  01/07-17 08:20
Glenn Møller-Holst
Indlæg: 56
Svar til #7:

Hej Finni

Hvornår bygger du den og fortæller om dine erfaringer med den?

Måske smitter de gode modtage egenskaber fra T2FD af på TC2M (lav støj; højere signal-til-støj forhold)?:
http://www.hard-core-dx.com/nordicdx/antenna/wi re/t2fd.html
Citat: "...
The terminated. tilted, folded dipole (T2FD) is a little known antenna that performs excellently. Compact in size compared to a half­wave dipole (approx. 67 feet long at 60 meters), the T2FD provides signal gain, wide frequency coverage, and exceptionally low noise characteristics.
...
My experience has shown the T2FD to be a fine performer when only a single shortwave receiving antenna can be erected, due to its wideband nature. It also has the advantage of electrical noise rejection (to a degree) compared to a random wire or even a dipole.
..."

-

Fordi den er bredbåndet er dens mål forholdsvis ukritiske. Det eneste der er kritisk er de en til to UNUN transformatorer.

Et plast/glasfiber kryds med ledere kan hejses op i en glasfiber flagstang.

-

Designerens forslag til jordplan:
http://web.archive.org/web/20150529061427/www.t c2m.info/TC2M%20HF%20Vertical%20G8JNJ.pd f
Citat pdf-side 9: "...
GROUND SCREEN.
In order to operate in an efficient manner, this antenna (as is the case with all vertical monopole antennas) needs to be fed against an appropriately dimensioned ground screen (ground plane, radials or counterpoise wires). Ideally this would take the form of a continuously conductive metal sheet, extending out to beyond 1/4 of a wavelength at the lowest required operating frequency. However in most cases this would not be practical to implement.
The next best solution would is a series of wire spokes extending out away from the base of the antenna out to beyond 1/4 wavelength at the lowest required operating frequency. A minimum of 8 buried wires would seem to offer the best compromise between cost, effort and efficiency.
If this is not possible then as many radial wires as possible should be used. If the wires are considerably shorter than 1/4 of a wavelength at the lowest required operating frequency, then it is better to use more wires. In practice, eight wires of 10m length with a further eight wires of 5m length laid in-between each other on the surface of the soil will produce reasonable results on most frequencies.
..."

-

Bedste jordplans form?:

3.6.4. Radial system and ground rods:
http://www.strobbe.eu/on7yd/136ant/#Radials
Citat: "...
optimized radial layout
...
Best result are achieved when the radials are equally distributed over the area below the antenna (see left picture). Placing 2 radials too close is not very effective and will hardly bring any improvement over a single radial. Depending on the soil conductivity, radials need to be spaced at least 2m to 10m for optimal effect. When using many radials an optimized layout can reduce the ammount of wire needed (and the work to bury the radials) without loosing efficiency (see right picture).
[]
In addition to radials, ground rods can reduce the ground loss. These rods can be located at the feeding point of the antenna or at the end of the radials, eventually also somewhere 'half way' the radials. Due to their relative small length it is essential that ground rods are blank metal. The longer (deeper) the ground rods are, the better. Getting the rods into the ground can be hard labour if you do it using a sledge hammer and brute force. If you don't have too much rock in the soil there is an easier way :

Use 1 inch galvanized iron tubing used for plumbing and often sold in practical 3m lengths. Connect your garden hose to one end of the tube and let the water flow trough the tubing. Hold the tube vertical on the soil, the water will wash the soil away and the tube will gently sink into the soil. Be aware that the tube can keep sinking into the soil even if you shut the water off, so it might be nessecary to secure the tube for some days to avoid a 'China syndrome'.
..."

-

Mit bedste bud på jordplans "tråd" med bolthuller:

Heavy Duty Ground Radial System for Vertical Antennas by KL7JR:
http://www.hamuniverse.com/kl7jrgroundingring.h tml
Citat: "...
Galvanized plumbers tape and 1/4 inch galvanized stove bolts!
...
It doesn't get much simpler or easy to make.
[]
You can also use copper plumber's tape and brass bolts but it'll cost more. As a minimum, I use four ground radials at about 16 feet long each (remember more and longer is better!) which works well on 10-40 meters for me.

On most portable outings when I have room I use 8 radials at 20+ feet long each.
..."

-

Nogen der ved hvor patentbånd sælges billigere?:

87kr
Paslode patentbånd. Varmforzinket. 12 x 0,8 mm. 10 meter
http://www.byghjemme.dk/pi/Paslode-patentb%C3%A 5nd-Varmforzinket-12-x-0-8-mm-10-meter_1 434917_117487.aspx

Andre benævnelser for patentbånd er her:
http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hulb%C3%A5nd

(Kan man købe kobber patentbånd, møtrikker og bolte til en fornuftig pris i DK? Jeg har pt kun kunnet finde dem i Norge: http://nettbutikk.wuerth.no/konstruksjons-og-by gningskomponenter/innredningsbeslag-og-p atentbaand/patentbaand Mere info: http://nettbutikk.wuerth.no/produkinformasjon/? id=158246 )

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Glenn, OZ1HFT

Redigeret 01/07-17 09:50
#12  01/07-17 11:36
Benny

Indlæg: 90

#13  25/07-17 23:55
Glenn Møller-Holst
Indlæg: 56
Svar til #1:

Jeg lavede i weekenden en indendørs forminsket TC2M/G8JNJ-antenne med 4 meter højde, 60cmØ med otte ledere. TC2M blev lavet af masonitplader, tape, snor, 750V monteringsledning og kronemuffer. (I stedet for masonitpladerne ville jeg have anvendt balsatræ, men jeg havde ikke nok hurtigttørrende trælim ved hånden)

OZ9QV kunne høre mig (OZ1HFT):

Resultat 24-7-2017 via 100W SSB fra mig til OZ9QV - S-meter er som modtaget hos ham:

28.530 kHz kl. 22.33 s7
21.180 kHz kl. 22.37 s5
14.112 kHz kl. 22.42 s2-s3
7.105 kHz kl. 22.45 ingen modtagelse

Mit støjgulv i kortbølgemodtageren var s7+ på alle bånd op til og med 10 meter, så jeg (OZ1HFT, Valby) kunne ikke høre OZ9QV (Torslunde). Alle tests var med justeret antennetuner på forminsket G8JNJ-antenne (4 meter høj).

(Uden antennetuner brokker kortbølgesenderen sig kun på 14MHz (HSWR). Testet i dag 25-7)

Den forminskede G8JNJ-antennes indendørs jordplan - er lavet af fire gange 10 meter (og fire gange 5 meter) lange uafstemte og strategisk krøllede 750V monteringsledninger :-)

-

De to ununs er pt hver lavet af tre gange FT114-61.

50:170 ohm unun er beviklet med 750V monteringsledning.

450:50 ohm unun er beviklet med tre farvede ledninger. Ledningerne er fra et massiv-leder category 5e PDS-installationskabel (LAN/computer-ledning).

450:50 ohm unun udgang er koblet til en 200W 50 ohm dummyload.

-

Når jeg får tid:

* Bliver planeten jorden brugt som jordplan.

* Toports TC2M-antennen bliver testet med en DG8SAQ VNWA-toportsantenneanalysator.

-

Desværre havde jeg kun een FT240-61 og ingen PTFE-ledninger, da jeg byggede, så jeg kunne ikke anvende G8JNJ nye unun opskrifter. Reelt burde unun og balun også testes ved SWR=2 (dvs fx ved 25 ohm og 100 ohm - i stedet for kun ved 50 ohm). Det er sikkert under sådanne forhold, hyldevare unun og balun, futter af ved 100W+ ? :

G8JNJ: Baluns and Tuners:
http://www.g8jnj.net/balunsandtuners.htm
Backup:
http://web.archive.org/web/20170219191746/http: //www.g8jnj.net/balunsandtuners.htm
Citat: "...
As before I tried constructing many different baluns before I realised that they didn’t work correctly. Most ‘voltage’ baluns or auto-transformer designs don’t work at all well, unless you get the materials or construction exactly right. The simplest and most reliable method I have found is to use two 1:1 current baluns connected in series / parallel. It is important to use type 61 or type K core material if you want to obtain the best results. As other ferrite materials intended for EMC suppression purposes are too lossy and present a noticeable shunt resistance which restricts the maximum impedance transformation ratio that can be obtained.
...
Thermal image of a faulty 4:1 voltage transformer, with insulation breakdown causing arcing to the balun core.
...
4:1 ‘Voltage’ Unun construction.
If you wish to feed a random length of wire, vertical antenna or some other form of unbalanced antenna then I suggest you use a 4:1 voltage balun as an unun.
I made a 4:1 Unun consisting of 12 bifilar twisted turns of 18AWG silver plated stranded wire. PTFE insulation, 1.85mm outer dia (CPC part number CB10433) wound on single FT240-61 core.
This gave good performance from 1.8 to 52MHz, with less than 0.1dB loss over most of the range up to 30MHz, and approx 0.5dB at 50MHz. This was measured with a miniVNA by halving the loss of two Ununs connected back to back I could have added more turns without affecting the performance over 1.8 to 30MHz (I started at about 15 turns) but I found could achieve sufficient bandwidth to include 50MHz by sacrificing a bit of additional loss at each end of the operating range.
...
9:1 ‘Voltage’ Unun construction.
Similar to the 4:1 unun, but this was even more difficult to get working. I finally got good performance from 1.8 to 30MHz, with less than 0.5dB loss over most of the range up to 30MHz,
Optimised with 6 trifilar turns of 18AWG silver plated stranded wire. PTFE insulation, 1.85mm outer dia (CPC part number CB10433) wound on FT240-61 core.
...
The easiest way to identify most ferrite materials is to wind about four turns of wire through the core and then measure the lowest frequency at which the value of reactive impedance equal resistive impedance i.e. X=R. There will be some variation between different batches and sizes of materials. But if you can plot the results graphically you can easily identify the 'signature' of each material.
Here are my references for some common ferrite materials
FT240-77 0.74MHz
FT240-31 3.5MHz
FT100-33 7MHz
FT240-43 17MHz
FT240-K 22MHz
FT240-52 31MHz
FT240-61 58MHz
Iron powder has a slightly different 'signature' it usually has a very low resistive component, which peaks to a higher value near self resonance. The more lossy the material the broader and lower value of resistive peak is apparent.
T200-52 40MHz Lime Green (& Blue or Red) colour common in PC switch mode power supplies - moderate loss
T200-26 60MHz Yellow & White colour common in PC switch mode power supplies - high loss
T200-2 60MHz Dark Red colour used for HF tuned circuits (& Ruthoff Ununs) - high Q low loss
T200-1 70MHz Blue colour not common - moderate loss
T200-6 100MHz Yellow colour used for VHF tuned circuits - high Q low loss
..."

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Glenn, OZ1HFT

Redigeret 15/08-17 19:32
#14  04/08-17 21:49
Glenn Møller-Holst
Indlæg: 56
Svar til #4:

Lidt om hvor "fremragende" trådantenner, deres eventuelle jordplan og antennetunere er som dummy-loads til 160 meter (1,8-2MHz) og 80 meter (3,6-3,8MHz) båndene. Selv 75 meter lange dipolantenner, i 6 meters højde, er bedre dummy-loads end TC2M :-) :

Denne vandret polariserede bredbåndede metaltråd TWA-antenne udstråler fx kun 0,44% som radiobølger ved 1,8MHz med 10 meter tråd i 10 meters højde:
http://web.archive.org/web/20150420080125/http: //www.rcwa.org/Training/Wire_Antennas_10 _160.pdf .
Selv med 23 meter tråd i 40 meters højde udstråles kun 14% som radiobølger.

-

Følgende gælder ikke TC2M, da den ikke behøver antennetuner.

Bemærk hvordan han næsten "praler" med hvor effektiv spolen i antennetunere er til at "brænde" HF-energien af, når tuneren skal tune korte antenner (i forhold til bølgelængden):

http://www.g3ynh.info/zdocs/z_matcing/part_3.ht ml
Citat: “…One issue that will be noted is that the AMU [Antenna Matching Unit=antennetuner] efficiency is low when the antenna is electrically short. The lost power is also dissipated almost entirely in the [antennetuner] inductor. Before dismissing the situation as hopeless however; it should be observed that a good roller coil is perfectly capable of dissipating 50 W continuously, and it takes only about 5 W of radiated power at the low end of the HF spectrum to effect NVIS communications within a radius of about 1000 km. With an AMU efficiency as low as 25%, a 100 W SSB transmitter will still deliver 25 W PEP to the antenna. The peak matching-network loss in that case will be 75 W, but the average loss will be about 25 W. Hence the coil will get quite hot, but it is not likely to be damaged by a typical short-wave transceiver...”

-

Den "bedste" antenne er en (vandret) dipol. Men selv den er kun 14% effektiv ved ca. 6 meters højde over jorden og ca. 75 meters bredde:

160-Meter Dipole Height.
N0GW - Gary Wescom - 1 Nov 2006.
http://radio.n0gw.net/radio03.pdf
Citat: "...
Table 1 – Dipole performance over average ground.
...
So, what is the “bottom line”? A 160 meter dipole or Inverted-Vee at even modest heights can be expected to work well. Effectively, almost any horizontal antenna configuration for 160 meters is going to be a high angle radiator.
..."

-

Sammenlign det med TC2M som lader til at aflevere 50% af energien i radiobølger ved 160 meter båndet. På bare lidt højere frekvenser udstråles langt mere af TC2M-antennen som radiobølger.

Udstrålingselevationsvinklen skulle være god.

Herudover dækker TC2M hele frekvensintervallet ca. 1,8 - 50MHz, i modsætning til smalbåndbredde dipolantenner og trådantenner med antennetuner, som klaprer løs eller manuelt skal justeres for hver ændring af senderfrekvensen:

http://web.archive.org/web/20150529061427/http: //www.tc2m.info/TC2M%20HF%20Vertical%20G 8JNJ.pdf

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Glenn, OZ1HFT

Redigeret 05/08-17 10:15